Do Lexis and Westlaw Infringe Copyright When They Post Briefs Filed in Court?

I briefly blogged about this question in 2009; now there’s a lawsuit, White v. West Publishing Corp. & Reed Elsevier Inc. (S.D.N.Y. filed Feb. 22, 2012) that argues that such posting does indeed infringe copyright. Here’s my summary from 2009, very slightly edited:

The argument for infringement is actually moderately strong. Like most other documents, briefs are protected by copyright the moment they are written. The fact that they’re filed in court doesn’t waive any copyright. That something becomes publicly available doesn’t strip it of copyright protection — the point of copyright protection is largely to prevent copying even of material that is publicly available. Lexis and Westlaw’s distribution of the briefs is thus presumptively copyright infrigngement.

The question is whether the commercial posting of the briefs is fair use; and fair use law is, as usual, vague enough that there’s no clear answer. I do think that the posting is quite valuable to researchers and to others who are trying to figure out what actually happened in a case, and why courts reached the results they did, and I think courts can consider this social value in the fair use analysis. It’s also quite unlikely that allowing such posting would materially diminish the incentive to write good briefs, or the market value of a good brief; that too is potentially relevant to the fair use inquiry. But the case isn’t open and shut, because there are no precedents (at least that I know of) that are clearly on point, because the various fair use factors seem to cut in both directions, and because fair use analysis is so vague in such situations.

Note that there is a statutory provision that says works of the federal government are free of copyright, which includes federal court opinions; and there is longstanding caselaw that says state court opinions are free of copyright. But there is no such existing doctrine as to briefs filed in court.

Thanks to Prof. Eric Goldman for the pointer to the case. Special note: Gregory Blue is representing Edward White, who is presumably also Nice Guy Eddie. No word on Messrs. Orange, Blonde, Pink, or Brown.